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税收优惠对我国制造业RD投入的效应分析和对策研究
  • 时间:2020-02-13 11:25
  • 编辑:CNCNKI查重网
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我国经济发展进入新常态后,实体经济发展困难增大,制造业“大而不强”的问题日益突出。要想突破这一困境,必须实现制造业的转型升级,提升我国制造业企业自主创新能力。税收政策作为政府调控经济、促进社会发展的重要手段,可以刺激企业开展研发活动。如何更有针对性的利用税收优惠政策促进制造业企业加大研发投入,具有十分重要的研究价值。

国内外学者已经从多个角度就税收优惠对企业研发投入的影响,进行了理论分析和实证研究。国外的相关研究起步较早,其理论分析和研究方法有很大的参考价值,但是研究背景和我国情况有较大差距,研究结果的参考价值有限。我国的相关研究起步较晚,而且大部分是理论政策分析和宏观数据研究,针对具体行业和不同规模企业的实证研究较少。本文对制造业企业中的大型企业、中型企业和小型企业进行对比研究,在已有研究的基础上对税收优惠与企业研发投入之间的关系做出了更具体化的分析。

本文利用2017年中国上市制造业企业的发展数据,运用PSM即倾向得分匹配法研究了税收优惠对我国制造业企业R&DResearch and Development 研究与开发) 研发投入的激励效应,并在得出的结论的基础上提出了相应的政策建议。首先介绍了写作的研究背景以及意义,同时梳理和归纳国内外学者们的研究文献,总结他们的结论和观点。接着说明本文研究方法和创新之处,以及写作过程中遇到问题和本文研究的不足。 然后又介绍了税收介入制造业R&D的理论基础和作用机理。分别从理论上来说明我国制造业企业R&D投入与经济增长的关系、税收优惠的理论基础以及实施效果。其次,在介绍我国制造业企业R&D投入现状的同时,又介绍梳理了我国R&D税收优惠政策的发展历程以及我国制造业企业R&D税收优惠政策现状。然后运用倾向得分法进行实证分析,分析R&D税收优惠的激励效果,以制造业的上市企业的数据为样本。回归分析税收优惠政策对企业制造业R&D投入激励效果。最后得出结论并提出政策建议,在经济学分析和数理分析的基础上,提出完善激励制造业企业R&D投入的税收优惠政策建议。

关键词制造业企业;税收优惠;R&D投入

 

Abstract

 

As Chinas economy has entered a period of new normal,the development of the real economy becomes more difficult,and the problem of manufacturing industry is big but not strong becomes increasingly prominent. To overcome this dilemma,we mast achieve the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry,and enhance the independent innovation capability of Chinas manufacturing enterprises. As the important means for government to control the economy and promote social development, taxation policies can stimulate the enterprises to carryout R&D. It is of great value to research how to use governments subsidy policies tax preferential policies and other taxation policies to promote the manufacturing enterprises to increase R&D investment.

Domestic and foreign scholars have conducted theoretical analysis and empirical research on the impact of tax incentives on enterprises R&D investment from different perspectives. Foreign related theoretical analysis and research methods are very valuable,because they started earlier. But the research background were not based on Chinas situation,therefore the reference value of their research results is limited. Chinas related researches started late,and most of the researches are theoretical policies analysis and macro data researches. There is less empirical research on specific industries and enterprises of different scales in China. This paper makes a comparative study of large-scale,middle-scale and small-scale enterprises in manufacturing industry. Based on the existing researches ,this paper also makes a more detailed analysis of the relationship between tax incentives and enterprises R&D investment.

Based on the research methods of domestic and foreign scholars and the development data of Chinese listed manufacturing enterprises in 2017, this paper studies the incentive effect of tax incentives on R&D investment of Chinese manufacturing enterprises by using PSM, i.e. propensity score matching method, and puts forward corresponding policy recommendations on the basis of the conclusions drawn.

This paper first introduces the research background and significance of writing, at the same time combs and summarizes the research literature of scholars at home and abroad, and summarizes their conclusions and views. Then it explains the research methods and innovations, as well as the problems encountered in the writing process and the inadequacies of this study. Then it introduces the theoretical basis and mechanism of tax intervention in manufacturing R&D. It explains the relationship between R&D investment and economic growth, the theoretical basis of tax preference and the effect of implementation. Secondly, while introducing the current situation of R&D investment of manufacturing enterprises in China, it also introduces the development process of R&D tax preferential policies and the status quo of R&D tax preferential policies of manufacturing enterprises in China. Then we use the tendency score method to analyze the incentive effect of R&D tax incentives, and take the data of listed manufacturing enterprises as samples. Regression analysis of incentive effect of tax preferential policies on R&D investment in manufacturing industry. Finally, it draws conclusions and puts forward policy suggestions. On the basis of economic analysis and mathematical analysis, it puts forward tax preferential policy suggestions to improve the incentive for manufacturing enterprises to invest in R&D.

Key words: Manufacturing Enterprises; Tax Preferences; R&D Input


一、导论

1.1研究的背景及意义

1.1.1研究的背景

工业的发展是其他产业发展的先决条件,制造业是一个国家工业的主导力量,在国民经济中发挥主要作用。我国现在是仅次于美国的全球第二大工业制造国,中国凭借巨大的制造业总量成为名副其实的“世界工厂”。我国制造业在取得巨大成绩的同时,也面临着诸多亟待解决的问题,迫切需要实现我国由“制造业大国”向“制造业强国”的转变,实现制造业产业升级。

发达国家的长期发展来源于其不断地创新,而我国由于劳动力成本较低,我国的制造业主要是劳动密集型产业,技术含量较低,主要从事的是流水线工作,缺乏创新性活动。可是随着近几年我国劳动力成本的不断上升,这就要求我国制造业要寻找新的出路,国务院提出“大众创业、万众创新”的口号,并指出经济发展进入新常态,需要从要素驱动、投资驱动转向创新驱动。 这就要求我们要加大对制造业的研发投入的支出,支持制造业的研发活动。

2015年5月19日,我国正式发布《中国制造2025》的纲领,中国制造2025,是我国政府实施制造强国战略第一个十年的行动纲领。《中国制造2025》提出,要坚持“创新驱动、质量为先、绿色发展、结构优化、人才为本”的基本方针,坚持“市场主导、政府引导,立足当前、着眼长远,整体推进、重点突破,自主发展、开放合作”的基本原则,通过“三步走”实现制造强国的战略目标:第一步,到2025年迈入制造强国行列;第二步,到2035年中国制造业整体达到世界制造强国阵营中等水平;第三步,到新中国成立一百年时,综合实力进入世界制造强国前列。要想达成实现战略强国的战略目标,企业自身的发展不容忽视,更重要的是政府需要通过出台一系列政策促进企业加大研发投入,正式迈入制造强国的前列。

政府激励企业研发投入有直接和间接两种方式,直接激励方式主要是直接向企业提供财政补贴,间接激励方式主要是向企业提供一定程度的税收优惠,如加计扣除、加速折旧以及税率优惠。由于企业的创新研究会带来一定的外部效应,企业的创新成果不能被创新企业独占,一旦出现新的产品或者技术,其它企业一定会争相效仿,这就需要政府合法地运用各种政策工具来对企业的活动进行指导和干预。

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